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Growing chokeberry - chokeberry

Growing chokeberry - chokeberry


Aronia is an American guest

One of the most reliable methods of creating frost-resistant varieties is the introduction into the culture of new breeds and varieties that tolerate temperatures lower than those in a given area.

These crops for many areas with harsh climatic conditions include chokeberry (chokeberry).

Chokeberry was brought to Russia at the beginning of the 19th century for decorative purposes from the eastern part of North America, where it grows wild. As a fruit crop, I.V. Michurin, who recommended chokeberry for the northern regions of fruit growing.

In the introduction of this culture into production, a decisive role was played by the activities of the Altai Experimental Gardening Station under the leadership of Professor M.A. Lisavenko. By 1946, the chokeberry was already zoned in various climatic zones of Altai.

The popularization of the chokeberry as a new garden culture was actively promoted by N.G. Zhuchkov, who brought 20 thousand seedlings of this culture to the Leningrad region from Altai in 1948, and since that time it has been widespread in Russia, especially in the regions of the Non-Chernozem zone and, in particular, in the North-West region.

Useful properties of chokeberry

Aronia has many valuable properties. It is favorably distinguished by winter hardiness, early maturity, annual fruiting, high yield, non-shedding of fruits during ripening and their keeping quality, resistance to pests and diseases, ease of harvesting. The relatively late flowering of plants of this culture ensures their less damage by spring frosts. Its fruits have valuable nutritional and medicinal properties.

In terms of vitamin P content, black chokeberry significantly surpasses almost all other fruit and berry crops. In freshly picked fruits, it ranges from 2.5 to 5%. Chokeberry can be considered a vitamin P concentrate and can be attributed to multivitamin crops.

Chokeberry fruits contain (mg per 100 g of wet weight): carotene (provitamin A) - within 1.1-3.2; B2 (riboflavin) - 0.1; B9 (folic acid) - 0.05-0.1; E (tocopherol) - 0.5-2.2; PP (nicotinic acid) - 0.4-0.8; C (ascorbic acid) - up to 65.

The dry matter content in ripe fruits is 12-26%, the total sugar content is 6.2-10.8%, including glucose and fructose - 4.3-5.9%; acidity - 0.7-1.3%, tannins content - 0.35%. They contribute to better clarification of juices, which is very important for wine production.

The amount of water-insoluble substances (fiber, pentosans, starch, lignin, proteins, fatty oils, etc.) in fruits reaches 7.8%. Minerals (calcium, molybdenum, manganese, copper, boron, cobalt and iron) contain from 1.55% to 3%, more than in currants, raspberries, gooseberries. Rowan blackberry is capable of accumulating a significant amount of iodine in the pulp of fruits - 2.9-3.4 mg per 100 g. Its fruits contain amygdalin glycoside - 5-30 mg, which is used in the treatment of heart diseases.

Another valuable property of the fruits of this culture is the possibility of obtaining harmless food dyes from them. Natural juice, due to its stable color, is good for blending with light-colored fruit juices.

The medicinal value of black chokeberry is in a large amount of vitamin P contained in the fruits. It increases the elasticity of the capillary walls and reduces their permeability, promotes better absorption of vitamin C by the body and its fixation in the spleen, kidneys and adrenal glands. By regulating the redox processes in the body, vitamin P helps to eliminate fatigue, headache, restores sleep and increases the body's resistance to disease. P-active catechins bind and remove radioactive substances from the body. Chokeberry juice is recommended for hypertension, atherosclerosis and anacid gastritis.

In fresh fruits of chokeberry, the content of oxycoumarins is noted, even in small quantities they have a high biological activity and affect a decrease in the prothrombin index.

Chokeberry features

Rowan black-fruited belongs to the genus Aronia of the Rosaceae family. In this genus, there are more than 15 species and hybrid forms, growing mainly in the temperate zone of North America, of which only chokeberry - chokeberry - became widespread. It belongs to the group of pome fruit crops, but the structure of the bush and the size of the fruit bring it closer to berry bushes. Therefore, in practice, it is often referred to as berry crops.

Rowan blackberry grows as a perennial shrub 2-3 meters high, less often 4 meters. With age, the bush becomes sprawling from compact. Mature bushes reach a diameter of 1.5-2 meters. One of the features of this culture is its great shoot-regenerating ability. An adult bush can have from 10 to 90 branches of various ages. New shoots are formed in large numbers at the base of the branches (replacement shoots) and appear on the roots of plants (root suckers).

The productive age of the branch can be considered 10 years. Older branches give insignificant annual growth and are characterized by a pronounced frequency of fruiting. The number of root shoots and offspring depends on the age of the bush, plant care, the content of nutrients in the soil.

By the age of seven, the base of the bush is about 1 meter in diameter and at least 50 shoots. In length, each stem grows up to 8 years, however, progressive growth dies out with age. Branching begins from the second year, and each subsequent year the number of overgrowing branches increases. This greatly thickens the bush and leads to the death of fruit wood.

A properly formed bush should have 45-60 branches of different ages. The productive age of the bushes is 20 years, but there are also 30-year-old healthy fruit-bearing bushes.

The shape of the bush and leaves of the chokeberry differs sharply from the common mountain ash. It has simple, shiny, leathery elliptical or obovate leaves 4-6 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm wide on fruit wood, and larger ones - 6-8 and 4-6 cm, respectively, on strong vegetative growths.

Buds are laid in the axils of the leaves. Depending on the type of shoots and their location on it, they are vegetative (growth) and generative (flowering). They differ not only in structure, but also in appearance. Growth buds are elongated, flat, smaller and usually tightly pressed to the shoot. The flower buds are larger, have a rounded shape, they are mixed, i.e. vegetative-generative. In the second year, they give an inflorescence - a scutellum and one or two replacement shoots. In inflorescences collected from 20 or more flowers. The flowers have an unpleasant smell, like all mountain ash, nevertheless, bees willingly visit them.

In the conditions of the Leningrad region, flowering occurs approximately two weeks after the appearance of the leaves and lasts 10-15 days. The ability to set fruit well during self-pollination and avoid spring frosts allows this crop to bear fruit annually.

Like seed crops, black chokeberry bears fruit on ringlets, spears, fruit twigs and mixed shoots. The ratio of fruiting organs with the age of the bushes and as they thicken changes. The young bush has a more even distribution of all types of fruit formations, but over the years, ringlets and spears predominate, and ringlets located on perennial branches are characterized by a sharp frequency of fruiting.

The most productive branches are 4-7 years old. However, due to pruning and high shoot regeneration capacity, the productive period in old bushes can be increased.

Chokeberry is one of the fastest growing fruit crops. Seedlings begin to bear fruit in 1-2 years after planting. At 5-7 years of age, they give 9 kg or more from one bush. Chokeberry fruits are round or slightly oblong, black, as if varnished, with a waxy coating, the average weight of the fruits is 1-1.5 g. Each fruit contains up to 5 light brown, elongated seeds. Ripe fruits do not crumble and stay on the bushes until frost.

Chokeberry is a fairly winter-hardy culture, it is able to withstand frosts down to -30 ...- 36 ° С. The decisive role in protecting the bushes from freezing belongs to the snow cover.

In the Northwest region, chokeberry is grown without bending the branches to the soil, and even if the bushes are sometimes damaged by winter frosts, they quickly recover and usually begin to bear fruit again after a year. The root system can freeze when the temperature in the root layer drops to -11 ... -12 ° С; in case of a short-term cold snap, a layer of snow of 15-20 cm reliably protects the roots from damage.

As for the light regime, the chokeberry is one of the most light-loving plants. With a strong thickening of the bushes or close placement of plants on the plantation, their productivity is greatly reduced. At the same time, the crop is concentrated on the periphery of the bush, and there is practically no fruiting inside it. Therefore, to obtain a high yield, it is necessary to maintain an optimal placement scheme and carry out systematic pruning.

In relation to the water regime, it should be noted that the chokeberry is a moisture-loving crop. For its cultivation, sufficient moisture is important not only in the soil, but also in the air. With uniform precipitation in the amount of 500-600 mm per year, chokeberry grows well and gives a high yield every year. With a lack of moisture during the ripening period, the yield decreases sharply, and the fruits themselves become small and less juicy.

Chokeberry grows best on medium, moisture-consuming fertile loams. In areas of stable moisture, it works well on soils of various textures, except for swampy, saline and stony soils. This crop tolerates acidic soils, but gives higher yields in areas with neutral acidity. When choosing a place for landing, preference should be given to low relief areas with groundwater occurrence at a depth of at least 2 m.

Reproduction, planting and caring for chokeberry

Chokeberry is propagated in different ways: by seeds and vegetative methods (root suckers, layering, dividing the bush, lignified and green cuttings, grafting into the crown or on the seedlings of common mountain ash).

The most widespread method of propagation is the seed method of reproduction in connection with the properties of the chokeberry, to give in the offspring relatively identical plants that retain the qualitative properties of this culture.

Seeds can be sown both in autumn and spring. It should be borne in mind that when sowing in the fall without stratification (preparing seeds for sowing), seedlings appear unevenly - throughout the summer, and seed germination is low.

The best result is obtained by spring sowing with stratified seeds. Stratification is carried out for 90 days in a basement with a constant temperature of 4-5 ° C. For this, the seeds are mixed with coarse sand in a ratio of 1: 4 or peat - 1: 2. During stratification, the substrate is kept moist.

When sowing, the seeds are mixed with sawdust, sown evenly in the grooves and mulched with humus. Seedlings are thinned out three times during the summer: the first time - when two true leaves are formed, the second time - when four to five leaves are formed, the third time - in the spring of next year, leaving a distance of 10 cm between the seedlings.

In the conditions of the Leningrad region with a long and cold winter, it is better to grow seedlings under a film, and then dive them into the ridges. They reach a standard size by the fall of the second year. During the summer, seedlings are fed by applying nitrogen fertilizers in early spring: 20 g of ammonium nitrate or 5 kg of slurry per 1 m². In order to obtain black chokeberry seedlings, various types of vegetative propagation are also used.

Reproduction by offspring is the easiest way, especially for amateur gardeners. The offspring are formed around the mother bushes, they are annual shoots that have their own root system, and can be separated from the mother plant in the fall, in September, or next spring, in May (simultaneously with the formation of the bush).

The rapid formation of roots and basal shoots occurs only when their bases are covered with soil during the entire spring-summer period. The formation of a large number of offspring is facilitated by timely and abundant plant nutrition. With the aging of the bushes, the number of offspring decreases markedly. The offspring that grew in spring reach a height of 25-35 cm by autumn and have well-developed roots, and those that appeared in the second half of summer are less developed and require mandatory growing on a separate ridge to achieve a standard size.

Reproduction by horizontal layering consists in bending well-developed basal offspring located on the periphery of the bushes, in an area abundantly filled with organic fertilizers (50-60 kg per bush). In the spring, after digging and loosening the soil, grooves 5-6 cm deep are drawn along the radius near the mother bushes and shoots are folded in them, pinning them with wooden hooks, and the grooves are covered with a substrate, while watering the soil well. On the upper side of the shoots laid in grooves, new shoots grow from the buds, and on the lower side - roots.

When young shoots reach a length of 5-8 cm, they are spud the first time, then, as they reach 12-15 cm, they are spud a second time.

During the summer, caring for mother bushes and layering consists of feeding with ammonium nitrate (20 g per bucket of water), slurry diluted 3-4 times, or chicken droppings diluted with water 10 times. As necessary, watering, weeding, loosening the soil is carried out, but all work must be done carefully so as not to damage the young shoots. In autumn, after the cessation of growth and maturation of the wood, the rooted shoots are separated from the mother bush, sorted and planted for growing.

Chokeberry is planted with two-year-old seedlings in autumn, spring. With proper excavation, the seedlings have strongly developed roots, so they tolerate transplantation well, without requiring shortening of the aerial part, which is usually done when transplanting berry bushes. Vegetatively propagated plants, which have a smaller aerial part and root system, can be pruned during planting, leaving 15-20 cm of the aerial part of the seedling to form a strong bush faster.

The planting technique is the same as for other berry crops. Taking into account the biological peculiarity of chokeberry to give a large number of shoots, the plants should not be planted deeper than they grew in the nursery.

They are planted in pits 60x40 cm in size, pouring a bucket of humus or compost into each pit, add phosphorus and potash fertilizers, wood ash; mix them with the soil. It is advisable to dip the roots of the seedling in a mash made of clay, mullein and water. After filling the roots, the soil is well compacted and watered, then the trunk circle is mulched with humus or peat to avoid moisture loss. Plants are planted at a distance of 2-2.5 m from each other.

In subsequent years, the plants continue to grow and form the bush.An outward sign of their normal state is an annual growth of at least 20 cm in length. And this is achieved by caring for the bushes and, first of all, the introduction of organic and mineral fertilizers.

Organic fertilizers - manure or compost - are applied once every two years, 20-30 kg per bush. Slurry diluted with water 1: 3 is also used. Every year, chokeberry bushes are fed with mineral fertilizers: in the early spring, as soon as the snow melts, nitrogen fertilizers are applied at the rate of 20 g per 1 m?, In the fall, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers are applied, respectively, 30 and 15-20 g per 1 m ². After flowering or at the beginning of fruit formation, foliar feeding with urea at the rate of 20 g per 10 l of water gives a good result. The soil under the bushes is kept loose and clean.

Due to the fact that the chokeberry bush quickly forms new shoots and thickens strongly, it must be formed annually, starting from a young age. In young bushes, the formation consists in the rationing of basal shoots, 5-6 of the strongest shoots are left annually, conveniently located on the bush. The rest are removed without leaving the hemp. Thus, by the age of 9-10, the bush consists of 50-70 branches of different ages.

Pruning of fruiting bushes consists in cutting diseased, old, dry and bare branches and normalizing basal shoots. One-year shoots should not be shortened, since the chokeberry lays fruit buds on them, and when pruning, the yield is greatly reduced.

The branches of the chokeberry retain high productivity up to 12-13 years. To prolong the life of the plantings at a high yield level, rejuvenating pruning is carried out at half the height of the bush. This technique increases the number of the most productive shoots and improves the quality of the berries, which become much larger. Such rejuvenating pruning is carried out once every 3-5 years, and this technique significantly increases the yield of the bushes.

Observations have shown that in case of damage to the chokeberry in severe winters, it quickly restores the bush due to basal shoots.

Shrubs damaged by frost are cut in the spring, when the degree of freezing is clearly visible. Older branches affected by frost are cut out at the very base, young ones - to living tissue.

To prevent the bushes from freezing in winter, during the autumn digging of the near-trunk circles, they are covered with earth to a height of 10-15 cm. Covering the near-trunk circles in autumn with manure, compost or peat also contributes to better plant preservation.

The ripening of the fruits of the chokeberry occurs more or less simultaneously, at the end of August - September, so they are harvested in one step. Moreover, the fruits intended for processing are harvested without shields, for storage - with a shield, but so as not to damage the ringlets located at their base. Fruits are stored at a temperature of 10 ° C for two months.

Chokeberry, in comparison with other fruit and berry crops, is much more resistant to pests and diseases. In the conditions of the Leningrad Region, in some years, the larvae of the cherry slimy sawfly and aphids cause minor damage to plants.

Sawfly larvae damage the leaves of black chokeberry, first gnawing the pulp from the upper side of the leaves, then skeletonizing them, leaving only veins. Having finished feeding, they go into the soil to pupate. During the summer, 1-2 generations develop. Measures to combat this pest are loosening and digging up the soil, spraying plants in the phase of appearance and growth of leaves (June) with infusions of tobacco, wormwood, soda ash solution (70 g per 10 l of water).

Aphids damage swollen buds, young leaves and shoots, sucking the juice out of them. During the growing season of plants, it gives several generations. Measures to combat aphids are early spring (before bud break) spraying with nitrafen (200-300 g per 10 liters of water). At the beginning of bud break, the bushes are treated with tobacco infusion or soap solution. With a large number of aphids, the treatment is repeated in the phase of separation of the buds. Diseases of chokeberry have not yet been identified.

G. Alexandrova,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Read also:
• Aronia or chokeberry
• How to properly prune chokeberry, honeysuckle and sea buckthorn
• Wine and chokeberry jam
• Chokeberry juice
• Interesting rowan varieties for your garden
• Rowan pomegranate - Michurinskaya

Reproduction of chokeberry (chokeberry)

Chokeberry propagates by seeds, layering (horizontal, arcuate, vertical), cuttings, dividing the bush (green and woody), root suckers and grafting.

Reproduction of chokeberry by seeds.

The seeds are isolated from crushed, ripe fruits.

Seeds are planted in the fall, in September-October (immediately after collecting the seeds) or in the spring, as soon as the soil allows (the collected seeds are placed in wet sand for the winter in the fall and stored in the basement until spring).

Seeds are sown evenly in grooves 6-8 cm deep, covered with 0.5 cm soil and mulched with a layer of sawdust or humus. To obtain good planting material, the first time the seedlings are thinned out when two true leaves are formed, leaving a distance of 3 cm between them, the second time - in the phase of four to five leaves at a distance of 6 cm.The last thinning is done in the spring of next year with a distance of 10 cm.

The soil is kept in a moist, weed-free state and is systematically loosened. In early spring, 5 kg of slurry per 1 m2 are applied. By the fall of the 2nd year, the seedlings reach a standard size and are ready for transplantation to a permanent place.

Reproduction of chokeberry by cuttings.

Reproduction by woody cuttings.

For reproduction by woody cuttings, well-ripened annual shoots (from 2-4-year-old branches) are taken.

Shoots for cuttings are best cut in the fall in the second half of September, planted during this period they have time to root well and overwinter safely.

On the same day, the workpieces are cut into cuttings 15-20 cm long, with 5-6 buds. The uppermost unripe part of the shoot should not be taken for cuttings. The upper cut on the handle is made oblique, to the kidney, the lower one under the kidney. Planting is carried out on the day of harvesting the cuttings.

In a well-prepared soil (dug up, clean from weeds, leveled), cuttings are planted in rows with a distance of 60-70 cm between them, and in a row of 10-12 cm at an angle of approximately 45 °. 2 buds are left at the top, and one of them should be at the level of the soil. The ground around the cuttings is tightly squeezed so that there are no voids, it is well watered and mulched with clean peat.

If the planting of cuttings is transferred to the spring, then it is better to prepare them from autumn to spring in the basement, in wet sand. In the spring, cuttings should be planted as early as possible, as soon as the soil allows.

For good and quick rooting of cuttings, the soil in the garden must always be kept moist and loose. This is especially important in the first month after planting. With good care by the fall, a standard seedling suitable for planting can be grown from the cuttings.

Propagation by green cuttings makes it possible to accelerate the production of seedlings, since already one-year-old plants have an excellent fibrous root system and a well-branched aerial part. When propagating by green cuttings, the transfer of glass and kidney mites to young plantations is excluded.

For cutting cuttings, powerful healthy bushes are chosen. Cuttings from the mother bush can be cut 2-3 times over the summer, cutting them off from the tops of all branches of the bush. The first time - around the beginning of summer, the second - only after a new regrowth and better from the lateral branches, the third - in early September from all shoots.

Cold greenhouses for green cuttings are prepared in advance (in June). Coarse sifted, well-washed sand with a layer of 7-10 cm is poured onto the dug clean layer of earth in the greenhouses before planting the cuttings.

The green stalk is cut 10-15 cm long (depending on the growth). After cutting, the cuttings are prepared for planting: the lower leaves are removed, leaving 2-3 upper leaves, which are also partially shortened. For better and faster rooting, a light longitudinal incision is made above each bud, and 3-4 such incisions are made in the lower part of the cutting. Before planting, for better rooting, the lower ends of the cuttings are immersed in a solution of the rooting agent (growth stimulator) for 6-12 hours. Then the cuttings, washed in clean water, are planted in cold greenhouses prepared in advance.

Cuttings cut and planted in greenhouses until mid-summer will have a developed root system by the end of summer and can be transplanted to a separate area for growing. Cuttings cut and planted in a greenhouse in autumn are left in greenhouses until next spring. In the spring, they are also transplanted for growing.

Cuttings should be planted obliquely almost closely to each other at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. Between the greenhouse film and the cuttings there should be a free space 15-20 cm high. After planting, the cuttings are thoroughly and abundantly watered from a watering can with a very fine strainer. It is very important that the water does not run in a continuous stream, but splashes out. After watering, the greenhouse is covered with foil.

The main care of cuttings consists in regular watering (at first it is important that the air in the greenhouses is warm and humid) and airing the greenhouses when the temperature in them rises above 25 °.

Three to four weeks after planting, cuttings root well in greenhouses. Next, the film is slightly opened during the day, and then, when the cuttings have undergone some hardening, the greenhouse is left open overnight. 7-10 days after rooting of the cuttings, the film is removed altogether.

Three-week-old cuttings, when properly cared for, form a good fibrous root system. The survival rate of cuttings in some varieties reaches 70-100%.

As soon as the bushes take root after transplanting for growing, they are liquid fertilized with nitrogen mineral fertilizers (30 g of ammonium nitrate per bucket of water) or slurry diluted with water 6-8 times.

During the entire growing period, the soil is loosened and weeds are weeded, and in dry weather the soil is watered abundantly.

The next fall, chokeberry bushes are dug up and planted in a permanent place. Bushes suitable for planting must have well-developed roots and strong shoots.

Reproduction of black chokeberry by root suckers.

Propagation by root suckers, which grow in large numbers annually around the bush, is the main method of propagation of the chokeberry.

The number of suckers depends on the variety. soil moisture, nutrient content and plant care. By the spring of next year, the shoots reach normal development, have their own root system. They are separated with a pruner or shovel from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place.

When digging out root suckers, the shoots are cut off, leaving 2-3 buds on each.

Black chokeberry propagation by layering.

For reproduction by horizontal and arcuate layers, it is better to take well-developed annual shoots and two-year branches with strong growths on young bushes. Layers are best done in early spring, as soon as the soil allows. The soil under the bushes intended for layering must be well dug up and leveled in advance.

After that, shallow grooves are made in the soil from the base of the bush, into which young shoots are bent and pinned. The tops of the latter are slightly pinched. When 10-12 cm young green shoots develop from the buds of the allotted branches, they are sprinkled to half with moist fertile soil or humus. After 15-20 days, when the shoots grow another 10-15 cm, the powder is repeated.

Rooted cuttings can be removed from the mother bush and transplanted to a permanent place either in the fall or next spring. It is preferable to separate the layers from the mother bush next spring.

For propagation by vertical layers, mother bushes are cut short in early spring, leaving stumps 15-20 cm long. Good care and abundant fertilization ensure a large number of young shoots. The first hilling should be done when the shoots reach a height of 10-15 cm (from the base). It is recommended to cover the center of the bush tightly with earth to prevent the branches from drawing closer together. After 20-25 days the shoots are sprinkled with earth again. This is best done after rain. In dry weather, before the second powder, the bushes must be watered. The cuttings are removed from the mother plant in the fall or early spring the following year.

When transplanting shoots are cut shortly, leaving 2-3 buds on each. When propagating by vertical layering, fewer seedlings are obtained than with the method of horizontal layering.

Reproduction of chokeberry by dividing the bush.

Reproduction by dividing the bush is used mainly when transplanting bushes from an old site to a new place.

To do this, the bushes (in the spring before the buds swell or in the fall a month before the onset of frost) are dug out, all old branches are cut out, leaving young, vigorous ones, the soil is shaken off the roots and the bush is cut with a pruner (or ax) into several parts, depending on its size. When dividing a bush, it is necessary to ensure that each new part of the plant has a well-developed root system and a healthy aerial part (1-2 shoots). Each part should have good, young, strongly developed roots, the old rhizomes are removed, and the remaining ones are trimmed.


Chokeberry - Aronia Michurina

Chokeberry grows in many of us, but not everyone knows that our "black chokeberry" was created through the long selection of I.V. Michurin from seedlings of a little decorative chokeberry, which grows mostly as a weed in North America along the banks of rivers and lakes, crossed with similar crops (possibly mountain ash). Subsequently, this new species was named after its creator I.V. Michurina - "Aronia Michurin". Our Michurin chokeberry has spread widely not only in the territories of our country, but in the near and far abroad, has not bypassed Canada and the United States, where the wild chokeberry comes from.

In turn, common mountain ash has little in common with black chokeberry, these are completely different species, united by the pink family. Chokeberry has been a member of the Aronia genus since 1935.

Chokeberry is a deciduous shrub, about 3 m high. The roots are shallow and have many small branched roots. The crown of an adult plant can reach 3 m in diameter. Differs in high decorativeness of both fruits and foliage, the autumn foliage of the chokeberry is especially beautiful, it plays with purple, red and orange colors. The flowers of the "blackberry" are bright white, fragrant, collected in corymbose inflorescences of 20 or more flowers.

During the fruiting period, large black berries with a bluish bloom are gathered in "umbrellas" on the lush green foliage. The berries of black chokeberry are juicy, round, like a pea, the size of a pea. Unripe berries are red. The taste of black chokeberry berries is sweet with a tart twist.

Chokeberry grows rapidly and begins to bear fruit from the age of 3. From mid-August to September, its fruits ripen.

Growing chokeberry


Planting chokeberry

Chokeberry is used for planting hedges, ravines are strengthened with it, it can be planted in ordinary plantings, but single specimens in gardens look good too.

Chokeberry is undemanding to soils, will grow on dry sandy soils, even tolerate acidic soils. It will grow well on soils of normal acidity, it also likes moist loamy soils, but not heavy so that there are more flower buds of green shoots. It requires good lighting, otherwise it will bloom poorly and there will be few fruits.

Like most fruit and berry plants, it is best to plant in the fall.But if you plant it in early spring before bud break, it will also take root normally. Aronia Michurin can be transplanted even with blossoming leaves, unlike most plants.

The root system of black chokeberry is located at a distance of 50 cm from the soil surface, so the close location of groundwater will not be a problem.

Aronia is planted like many other fruit and berry crops. Dig a hole with a depth and diameter of about 50 cm. The fertile soil layer - in one direction, the lower layers of the earth - in the other. Add to the "upper ground" a bucket of humus, potassium sulphide about 60 g and superphosphate about 100 g. The planting hole is filled with this mixture after the seedling is lowered there. When planting, the root collar needs to be buried by about 1.5 cm.

After planting, water the seedling, near a bucket of water. Mulch the earth with humus, sawdust, dry soil.

Once the seedling is planted, trim it back to 4 healthy buds (about 20 cm from the soil surface) to get a strong growth.

Reproduction of chokeberry

Chokeberry is a self-pollinated culture. The easiest way to propagate chokeberry is by root suckers. The root offspring of chokeberry can grow about 40 cm over the summer and have a good viable root system, so you can safely transplant them. But this does not exclude the possibility of propagating it by seeds, cuttings, dividing the bush, layering, grafting.

When propagated by seeds, they need to be sown in October, during the winter period they will go through a stage of natural stratification and a seedling will appear in the spring. The depth of sowing seeds into the ground is about 2 cm. Spring sowing requires stratification of seeds for about 4 months at a temperature not higher than 5 ° C.

For inoculation, they usually take a stock of mountain ash, but a pear or hawthorn is also suitable.

Chokeberry care

For the berries to be large and juicy, you need to water the chokeberry during the period of fruit formation and under the condition of a dry summer.

Chokeberry should not be "fed" with fertilizers, otherwise you will get dense foliage and large stems, but the yield will be worse and winter hardiness will decrease. If you introduced organic and mineral fertilizers into the pit during planting, then for 2 years you can not fertilize the plant. From the age of five, organic fertilizers and ammonium nitrate can be applied to the trunk circle.

Chokeberry pruning

As I said, after planting, do the first hard pruning. The next year, pruning will consist in the formation of skeletal branches in a young plant - there are about 12 of them.

Remove thickening shoots every year.

You can shorten the shoots after the plant has finished blooming, thereby adjusting the shape of your chokeberry.

After 7 years old branches are cut out, leaving strong young ones, thus replacing old branches with young ones.

When your "blackberry" has already crossed the ten-year mark, feel free to cut it to ground level. This will rejuvenate the plant.

Chokeberry harvest and its application

Chokeberry berries ripen by the end of August, but it is better to collect them after the first frost. Carefully cut off the thyroid fruit with scissors, without removing the berries from their places. This way they will last longer - you can string them on a wire and hang them in a cool, dark place. Aronia berries can be dried, frozen, made from them compotes, fruit drinks, wine, puree, jam.

Chokeberry is very useful and has medicinal properties. They say that chokeberry contains almost the entire periodic table: a huge amount of all kinds of compounds, vitamins, minerals.

Chokeberry fruit juice especially helps people with hypertension. But if you have a stomach ulcer, problems with the duodenum or blood clotting instantly, chokeberry fruits can be dangerous for you.

Chokeberry varieties

There are many varieties of black chokeberry, but their problem with the image is that they are all extremely similar to each other in appearance and differ only in taste, fruiting timing and other properties. Breeders in many countries have been working to improve the properties of chokeberry. The Danes bred the Aron variety, the Finns presented us with such varieties as Hakkiya, Viking, Belder, Karkhumaki, the Poles shared the varieties Kutno, Dabrovice, Egerta, Nova Ves, and many more varieties have a mixed origin: "Nero", "Black-eyed", "Rubina", "Erekta" and others.

If you want to plant chokeberry, it is best to choose varieties from a local nursery, they will be most adapted to the conditions of your climatic zone.


Chokeberry chokeberry: planting and care (with photo)

Chokeberry chokeberry when planting and leaving is not a difficult horticultural crop. It can be planted in areas where apple or pear will not grow - where groundwater is close.

Pits are dug with a diameter of 60 and a depth of 50 cm. For 1 hole from organic fertilizers take 1 bucket of manure or vegetable humus and peat, from mineral - 3 tbsp. spoons of nitrophoska, 2 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate. Everything is thoroughly mixed with the earth taken out of the pit, poured back into the pit and poured with a solution of "Potassium Humate" for fruit and berry crops (3-4 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). A week later, seedlings are planted. Before planting, their roots are shortened by 20-25 cm.

Care consists in watering and feeding, especially during the ripening of the fruits, as well as in the constant loosening of the trunks with mulching with humus, compost, peat, fertile soil. Look at the planting and caring for chokeberry in the photo - there is an opportunity to see all the basic operations of agricultural technology.

During the season, 3 dressings are carried out. The first feeding is done in the spring, when the leaves begin to bloom: in 10 liters of water, dilute 2 tbsp. spoons of "Potassium Humate" for fruit and berry crops and "Intermag" for flower and ornamental crops, 5-6 liters of solution are spent on young bushes, and up to 20 liters on fruit-bearing ones.

The second feeding is carried out at the beginning of flowering: 1 tbsp is taken for 10 liters of water. a spoonful of potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. a spoonful of superphosphate, watered at the rate of 10 liters of solution for a young bush, 20–25 liters for a fruiting one.

The third feeding is done after the final collection of berries (in the fall): in 10 liters of water, dilute 2 tbsp. tablespoons of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, 12 liters of solution are spent on young bushes, 25 liters on fruit-bearing ones.

During the growing season, 2 foliar dressings are carried out: 2 tbsp is diluted for 5 liters of water. spoons of "Potassium humate" universal, sprayed 2 times after flowering with an interval of 12 days.

On the bushes of chokeberry, leaf rollers, cherry slimy sawfly, aphids and rose fly can appear. Against these pests, before and immediately after flowering on the surface of the leaves, the bushes should be treated with a solution of "Karbofos" (40 g per 10 l of water) or a fungicide of liquid green soap (2 tablespoons per 5 l). Diseases on chokeberry were not noticed.

The fruits ripen at the same time, so they can be harvested at one time - before the onset of frost, in order to preserve vitamins. Chokeberry berries are harvested by cutting off whole clusters from the branches. The collected bunches are stored in a cool room for a long time.


Rowan black-fruited (Aronia black-fruited) - Aronia melanocarpa Elliot. Homeland - the coast of the Atlantic Ocean of North America.

Perennial deciduous shrub, height - 3 meters. Up to 6-7 years, the bushes are compressed, then they spread out from the severity. The feeding area of ​​one plant is 5-6 m2. The root system is fibrous, branched.

Chokeberry buds are of three types: dormant, mixed and growth. Fruiting in chokeberry on ringlets, fruit spears and mixed branches.

In the center of the mixed bud there is an inflorescence - a complex shield, in it there are 10-30 flowers. The flowers are bisexual. The life period of one flower is 8-10 days. Self-pollinating flowers are an important natural adaptation of the bush, because thanks to this, the fruit set is 80-90%.

Shoots of black mountain ash are slightly pubescent, thin. The leaves are cherry-like. The fruit of mountain ash is apple-shaped, with biological ripeness it has a dark color with a bloom. The pulp is juicy, tart, contains organic acids, tannins, sugars, iodine. Fruit weight from 1 to 1.5 g. Weight of 1000 seeds 3-4 g.

The peculiarity of black chokeberry is that the higher the harvest of this year, the later the ripening of the fruits of the next year occurs. Under unfavorable weather conditions, the process of transformation of growth buds into fruit buds may stop. Special conditions for growing black chokeberry are not required, since it tolerates temperature extremes and frost well. Aronia is photophilous, therefore it does not tolerate shading. Pollination with own pollen does not occur, therefore, for food purposes, it is better to plant in groups.

Black mountain ash does not tolerate stony, dry, saline soils. Requires regular watering with soaking soil layer up to 50cm.

Planting chokeberry consists of the following stages:

  1. Application of fertilizers to the entire planting site, at the rate of 5-6 kg of humus, 100 g of phosphorus and 40 g of potash fertilizers per 1 m2. If we plant only one plant, then we put the entire above fertilizer rate in the planting hole. For high yields, fertilize annually.
  2. We plant it according to the scheme 3.5 x 2.5 m. Planting on light soils to a depth of 6-8 cm, on heavy soils 2-3 cm deeper than the root collar. You can plant not only seedlings, but also adult bushes.
  3. Regular watering at the rate of 2-3 buckets of water for an adult bush.
  4. Chokeberry care consists in weeding of row spacings or near-stem holes from weeds. And, if necessary, protection from pests and diseases.

How to prune chokeberry? One of the features of the black mountain ash is that an adult bush must have more than 40 different-aged branches (trunks). Therefore, pruning of chokeberry, up to 7 years of age, is carried out only for cutting out sick, injured, twisted branches. After 7 years, chokeberry pruning is required for rejuvenation. We cut it in February-March, in regions with a long winter later, but always along dormant buds.

Reproduction of chokeberry

How does chokeberry reproduce? The blackberry propagates by seeds, root suckers, cuttings, dividing the bush and grafting. Seeds are difficult to germinate, therefore seed reproduction is used only in breeding. Best of all, black chokeberry propagation occurs by cuttings.

It is better to harvest cuttings in the phase of initial lignification - this phase occurs during mass flowering of mountain ash.

Cuttings are cut from old bushes, from the bottom of the shoot. Cutting length 5-10 cm (1-2 internodes). Rooted into prepared soil: garden soil with humus 1 bucket per m2, on top a layer of river sand with peat 1: 1, 4-6 cm high.Cuttings are planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm with a distance of 5-10 cm and row spacing 0 , 5 m. Chubuki is watered and covered with foil or glass, shading from the bright sun. Roots should appear in 2-3 weeks. After two months, the shelter is completely removed, and in the fall the cuttings are planted. The stalk is planted in the main place after 2 years.

Of the vaccinations on chokeberry, summer budding with a sleeping kidney in a T-shaped incision is used.

Chokeberry varieties:

  • Aronia Venisa is a versatile variety. Berry weight - 1.3 g.
  • Aronia Nadzeya is a versatile variety. Berry weight - 1.2 g.
  • Viking, Black-eyed, Altai large, Aron, Rubina, Nero, Hakkia, Nova weight, Karkhumyaki, Dabrovice. Productivity and biological characteristics of varietal mountain ash are similar to each other.

In landscape design, chokeberry is used for planting freely growing hedges, or for a single planting.


Reproduction of chokeberry

Aronia reproduces well both by seed and vegetative methods.

But the most common options are sowing seeds and using cuttings. Let's dwell on these two methods.

Cuttings

To propagate the plant with woody cuttings, you will need to use annual shoots obtained from 2-4 year old branches. They are cut in the first half of autumn. The cuttings should have 5-6 eyes, their length is up to 0.02 meters. It is categorically impossible to propagate using the upper part of the shoot.

A cut from above is performed obliquely, and from below - directly, directly under the eye, the cuttings should be planted in the direction of 45 degrees, making a distance of 12 centimeters. The ground around the cuttings is watered, and peat mulch is also made.

Planting seeds

To obtain seed, the fruits are wiped through a sieve, then the seeds are lowered into water to float the pulp and rinse. Seed material is washed, mixed with sand (ratio - 1 to 3). It is extremely important to undergo stratification, for which the material is placed in a refrigerator for 3 months.

When the seeds begin to hatch, they can be sown in the garden. For this, special grooves up to 8 centimeters deep are formed. The bed is sealed with rotted manure or sawdust. When the seedlings have 2 leaves each, they need to be thinned out, making the distance between crops at 0.03 meters. Another thinning is performed after the presence of 5 leaves, the distance is left up to 0.1 meters. At this time, remember about watering the garden, loosening it, eliminating weeds. Transplanting bushes to a permanent place of growth is possible only in the fall of next year.


Watch the video: Red Chokeberry Aronia arbutifolia Aronia rosu